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             tools for Project Based learning (PBL),   Teaching has now reached a complex   •  Feedback and peer assessment are
            which  indeed,  goes  way  beyond  the   step because, all of a sudden, students   essential.
            course  book  and  engages  and  gives   matter. Classroom planning is about   •  A real audience to present the
            students  a  voice  and  ownership  in   students’ interest, promoting students’   students’ final product.
            their learning.                  choice,  questioning  their  readiness  to
            PBL is not something that has sudden-  learn.  Teaching  is  not  only  about   But how can you apply this to
            ly  appeared  and  is  a  new  teaching   content  but,  in  fact,  about  how  you   language teaching?
            methodology. Many philosophers and   choose to display the content and how
            educators have talked about it before.   students  will  make  sense  of  the   To embrace PBL, is to go on an adven-
            Socrates  (470-399  BC),  Dewey  (1859-   content  (process).  Teaching  is  about   ture. Nevertheless, working with PBL in
            1957),  Carl  Rogers  (1902  –  1987),   students’  engagement  and  their   a foreign language is not the same as
            Vygostsky  (1896  -1934)  and  many   understanding   of   the   process.   applying  it  in  in  other  subjects  in  the
            others. They have all stressed the   Teaching is questioning! But the level   mother tongue. Moments of language
            importance of placing students at the   of the cognitive demand is important.   input, drills, practice, like in any other
            center of their learning while providing   What are we questioning? It has been   language class are necessary. As stated
            them with opportunities to investigate   said that 60% of the questions asked   above, PBL is not a new methodology,
            and  propose  solutions  to  real-life   in the classroom are recall questions,   however, is has not been widely used in
            problems.  However,  in  order  to  do   20% are procedural questions, which   Language  teaching.  Schools  are  still
            that,  teachers  need  tools  and  learn   leaves  only  20%  for  the  most  impor-  thoroughly involved with course books
            how to make meaningful connections.   tant  questions:  the  ones  that  make   and  not  only  teachers,  but  students
            Learners need to learn how to negotia-  students engage, reflect and interact.   and their parents are fully dependent
            te plans, analyse, discuss information   Project-based  learning,  group  work,   on  course  books.    Course  books  are
            and  ideas.  Project  work  encourages   active   learning,   cross-curricular   extremely important and necessary as
            imagination and creativity, self-discipli-  projects  are  classroom  activities  that   guidelines  and  they  offer  us  exactly
            ne  and  responsibility,  collaboration,   are here to stay. It is up to teachers to   that, however, they do not always fulfill
            research  and  study  skills,  and  cross-  embrace  this  change  in  order  to   our  students’  needs  as  learners  of  a
            -curricular work by exploring knowled-  develop students into the citizens we   second  language.  Likewise,  teachers
            ge  gained  in  other  subjects  (CLIL).  In   want and need them to be.  have different teaching strategies and
            PBL,  students  are  engaged  because                             again,  course  books  are  not  able  to
            the project is meaningful to them and                             offer  distinct  approaches  for  all
            is  within  their  interests,  not  the                           teacher’s needs. Course books should
            teachers’. The teacher may point out a   There are a few essential steps to follow   be a baseline, a guideline for teachers
            topic, but the students will branch out   to carry out a class based on PBL:  and students and not the full context of
            to their own interests within the topic.   •  Students need to feel an urge to   a class itself.
            It is not an easy task for the teacher as   know.                 Students  are  not  used  to  working
            he/she  is  no  longer  in  control  of  the   •  A compelling driving question.  thoroughly  in  groups,  being  autono-
            language  that  might  come  up,  howe-  •  Teachers need to give students a   mous,  collaborating  and  assessing
            ver  it  is  far  more  challenging  and   voice and a choice.    themselves and their peers, which are
            interesting, not only for the students,   •  Teachers need to understand and   some  main  features  of  a  PBL  class.
            but for the teachers, as well.   apply the 21st century skills.   These are exactly the advantages PBL

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